Pepin the Short
Charles Martel was succeeded as Mayor of the Palace by his son Pepin, often called Pepin the Short.
In 752 A.D., the Pope anointed Pepin the Short as king. This anointing by the Pope was important. To his subjects, it meant that Pepin had the backing of God, or that he was God’s chosen ruler.
In exchange for the blessing of the Pope, Pepin promised to offer his protection to the Church. At this time, the Church in Rome was under attack by a non-Christian Germanic tribe called the Lombards. The Pope had sought assistance from the Byzantine Empire, but they refused to send aid. This left the Pope with no choice but to turn to the Franks.
In 754 A.D., Pepin the Short successfully removed the Lombards from Rome and gave their lands to the Pope. This strengthened the ties between the Catholic Church and the Franks, while the ties between the Church and the Byzantines were weakened.