From 1000 A.D.through 1258 A.D., the Islamic state began to see a long slow period of decline. The massive empire that had been conquered by Islam, and brought under the rule of one leader began to splinter into smaller groups led by local leaders.
By 1258 A.D., the caliph in Baghdad ruled nothing more than Baghdad itself and a small territory around it. In this year, the Mongols entered the region and destroyed the city of Baghdad. They slaughtered over 50,000 of the city’s residents as they sought to control it.